[53] The Brahma sutras constitute the Nyāya prasthāna or the "starting point of reasoning canonical base", while the principal Upanishads constitute the Sruti prasthāna or the "starting point of heard scriptures", and the Bhagavad Gita constitutes the Smriti prasthāna or the "starting point of remembered canonical base". [101][103] The compiled dialogue goes far beyond the "a rationale for war"; it touches on many human ethical dilemmas, philosophical issues and life's choices. [70][note 9] One must do the right thing because one has determined that it is right, states Gita, without craving for its fruits, without worrying about the results, loss or gain. Mother Geeta in the similar shloka form. The, An alternate way to describe the poetic structure of. When disappointment stares me in the face and all alone I see not one ray of light, I go back to the Bhagavadgītā. The gunas affect the ego, but not the soul, according to the text. Oppenheimer later recalled that, while witnessing the explosion of the Trinity nuclear test, he thought of verses from the Bhagavad Gita (XI,12): दिवि सूर्यसहस्रस्य भवेद्युगपदुत्थिता यदि भाः सदृशी सा स्याद्भासस्तस्य महात्मनः ॥११- १२॥ Bhagavad Gita 9.1. Like his Vedanta peers, Ramanuja wrote a bhashya (commentary) on the Gita. This would date the text as transmitted by the oral tradition to the later centuries of the 1st-millennium BCE, and the first written version probably to the 2nd or 3rd century CE. [347] According to Jimmy Klausen, Ambedkar in his essay Krishna and his Gita stated that the Gita was a "tool" of Brahmanical Hinduism and for its latter-day saints such as Mahatma Gandhi and Lokmanya Tilak. [93] Adi Shankara, in his 8th-century commentary, explicitly states that the Gita has 700 verses, which was likely a deliberate declaration to prevent further insertions and changes to the Gita. [137] This chapter contains eschatology of the Bhagavad Gita. [25][26][note 3], Scholars consider Vyasa to be a mythical or symbolic author, in part because Vyasa is also the traditional compiler of the Vedas and the Puranas, texts dated to be from different millennia. It also "relegates the sacrificial system of the early Vedic literature to a path that goes nowhere because it is based on desires", states Bryant. [63][64][65], The Bhagavad Gita is the sealing achievement of Hindu Synthesis, incorporating its various religious traditions. [344], The Gita has been cited and criticized as a Hindu text that supports varna-dharma and the caste system. The Mahabharata – the world's longest poem – is itself a text that was likely written and compiled over several hundred years, one dated between "400 BCE or little earlier, and 2nd century CE, though some claim a few parts can be put as late as 400 CE", states Fowler. Gandhi called the Gita "The Gospel of Selfless Action". Theirs is true renunciation. [179], The Upanishads developed the equation "Atman = Brahman", states Fowler, and this belief is central to the Gita. It is more likely that the works of multiple writers were combined into one. According to Edwin Bryant and Maria Ekstrand, this school incorporates and integrates aspects of "qualified monism, dualism, monistic dualism, and pure nondualism". [54] Swami Vivekananda interprets the first discourse in the Gita as well as the "Kurushetra war" allegorically. Since Shankara's time, the "700 verses" has been the standard benchmark for the critical edition of the Bhagavad Gita. Arjuna is distressed and in sorrow. Gandhian ahimsa is in fact "the essence of the entire Gita", according to Vajpeyi. Who wrote the Bhagavad Gita? According to the Indologist Ananya Vajpeyi, the Gita does not elaborate on the means or stages of war, nor on ahimsa, except for stating that "ahimsa is virtuous and characterizes an awakened, steadfast, ethical man" in verses such as 13.7–10 and 16.1–5. The Gita text he commented on, is slightly different recension than the one of Adi Shankara. This contrasts with a few competing schools of Indian religions which denied the concept of self, soul. It discusses who is a true yogi, and what it takes to reach the state where one harbors no malice towards anyone. Krishna states that he is everywhere and in everything in an unmanifested form, yet he is not in any way limited by them. Chrissy Teigen gives first interview since pregnancy loss. It is a conversational narrative that encompasses a dialogue between Pandava prince Arjuna and his guide and charioteer Krishna, set in the backdrop of Mahabharata when the former was reluctant to fight the battle with his relatives and sought the latter’s sagacious guidance. Action leads to knowledge, while selfless action leads to spiritual awareness, state the last verses of this chapter. Arjuna accepts Krishna as the purushottama (Supreme Being). According to Jeaneane Fowler, the Gita builds on the Upanishadic Brahman theme, conceptualized to be that which is everywhere, unaffected, constant Absolute, indescribable and nirguna (abstract, without features). [18][112][113] Krishna qualifies the three divisions of faith, thoughts, deeds, and even eating habits corresponding to the three modes (gunas). Most personalities I know … For Vivekananda, the Gita was an egalitarian scripture that rejected caste and other hierarchies because of its verses such as 13.27—28, which states "He who sees the Supreme Lord dwelling equally in all beings, the Imperishable in things that perish, he sees verily. [79][80][81] According to Galvin Flood, the teachings in Gita differ from other Indian religions that encouraged extreme austerity and self-torture of various forms (karsayanta). Purport . Bhagavad Gita . [42] He cites similar quotes in the Dharmasutra texts, the Brahma sutras, and other literature to conclude that the Bhagavad Gita was composed in the fifth or fourth century BCE. [321] Modi gave a copy of it to the then President of the United States of America, Barack Obama in 2014 during his U.S. Among Western English translations of the Gita, Sargeant's is unusual in providing a word-by-word translation with parsing and grammatical explanation, along with Sanskrit and English renderings. [note 13] Every time he returns, he teaches about inner Self in all beings. [39] J. [225] Several modern Indian writers have interpreted the battlefield setting as an allegory of "the war within". [46], Linguistically, the Bhagavad Gita is in classical Sanskrit of the early variety, states the Gita scholar Winthrop Sargeant. Yes, you heard me right, writing Bhagavad Gita on rice grains. [162], The Gita adopts the Upanishadic concept of Absolute Reality (Brahman), a shift from the earlier ritual-driven Vedic religion to one abstracting and internalizing spiritual experiences. [246]:525–530, According to the exegesis scholar Robert Minor, the Gita is "probably the most translated of any Asian text", but many modern versions heavily reflect the views of the organization or person who does the translating and distribution. There are many philosophers who write comments on the Bhagavad-gita but have no faith in Krsna. For other uses, see, Face pages of chapters 1, 2 and 3 of historic, Verse 2.21 from the Bhagavad Gita (15 secs), Verse 2.47, "act without craving for fruits" (16 secs), Krishna states that the body is impermanent and dies, never the immortal soul, the latter is either reborn or achieves. We will discuss if w… [97], The Gita is a dialogue between Krishna and Arjuna right before the start of the climactic Kurukshetra War in the Hindu epic Mahabharata. David Maas, NBA halftime showman, dies of COVID-19 [243], The first English translation of the Bhagavad Gita was published by Charles Wilkins in 1785. Those who act selfishly create the karmic cause and are thereby bound to the effect which may be good or bad. [349], The humble sage, by virtue of true knowledge, sees with equal vision a learned and gentle brahmana, a cow, an elephant, a dog and a dog-eater [outcaste], Nadkarni and Zelliot present the opposite view, citing early Bhakti saints of the Krishna-tradition such as the 13th-century Dnyaneshwar. Savarkar "often turned to Hindu scripture such as the Bhagavad Gita, arguing that the text justified violence against those who would harm Mother India. But it only takes a very slight deviation and the mind is mad and out of control again. The chapter discusses cosmology, the nature of death and rebirth. Vallabha the proponent of "Suddhadvaita" or pure non-dualism, wrote a commentary on the Gita, the "Sattvadipika". [362] Bakim Chandra Chatterji, the author of Vande Mataram – the national song of India, challenged orientalist literature on Hinduism and offered his interpretations of the Gita, states Ajit Ray. Krishna counsels Arjuna to "fulfill his Kshatriya (warrior) duty to uphold the Dharma" through "selfless action". These late 19th-century theosophical writings called the Gita as a "path of true spirituality" and "teaching nothing more than the basis of every system of philosophy and scientific endeavor", triumphing over other "Samkhya paths" of Hinduism that "have degenerated into superstition and demoralized India by leading people away from practical action". [116] Krishna answers. Summary of the Book Meghnad Desai writes about the Bhagavad Gita saying that it is a secular text. Richard Davis tells the story of this venerable and enduring book, from its origins in ancient India to its reception today as a spiritual classic that has been translated into more than seventy-five languages. Like some of the Upanis… [248] These translations vary,[249] and are in part an interpretative reconstruction of the original Sanskrit text that differ in their "friendliness to the reader",[250] and in the amount of "violence to the original Gita text" that the translation does. In Minor's view, the Harvard scholar Franklin Edgerton's English translation and Richard Garbe's German translation are closer to the text than many others. Instead, it is teaching peace and discussing one's duty to examine what is right and then act with pure intentions, when one's faces difficult and repugnant choices. B. van Buitenen, was published by Emile Senart in 1922. The book is significant in that unlike other commentaries of the Bhagavad Gita, which focus on karma yoga, jnana yoga, and bhakti yoga in relation to the Gita, Yogananda's work stresses the training of one's mind, or raja yoga. [352][353], According to Swami Vivekananda, sva-dharma in the Gita does not mean "caste duty", rather it means the duty that comes with one's life situation (mother, father, husband, wife) or profession (soldier, judge, teacher, doctor). It took her 150 hours to finish this and 4,042 grains of rice has been used to finish this micro art. [18][112][113] The fifteenth chapter expounds on Krishna theology, in the Vaishnava Bhakti tradition of Hinduism. [86] The Bhagavad Gita is a Brahmanical text which uses the shramanic and Yogic terminology to spread the Brahmanic idea of living according to one's duty or dharma, in contrast to the ascetic ideal of liberation by avoiding all karma. [5][7][8], The Bhagavad Gita presents a synthesis[9][10] of Hindu ideas about dharma,[9][10][11] theistic bhakti,[11][12] and the yogic ideals[10] of moksha. Bhagavadgita, (Sanskrit: “Song of God”) an episode recorded in the great Sanskrit poem of the Hindus, the Mahabharata. but those who work without expecting reward [web 1][3][note 1] The Krishna–Arjuna dialogues cover a broad range of spiritual topics, touching upon ethical dilemmas and philosophical issues that go far beyond the war Arjuna faces. "[246]:518, According to Sargeant, the Gita is "said to have been translated at least 200 times, in both poetic and prose forms". [25][37] This view is shared by the Indologist Arthur Basham, who states that there were three or more authors or compilers of Bhagavad Gita. Accordingly, the title has been interpreted as "the word of God" by the theistic schools,[17] "the words of the Lord",[18] "the Divine Song",[19][20] and "Celestial Song" by others. [332], A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, 11th President of India, despite being a Muslim, used to read Bhagavad Gita and recite mantras.[333][334][335][336][337]. Abhinavagupta's commentary is notable for its citations of more ancient scholars, in a style similar to Adi Shankara. [104] According to Sargeant, it delves into questions about the "purpose of life, crisis of self-identity, human soul, human temperaments, and ways for spiritual quest". This is not to be confused with the Shrimad Bhagavatam, which is a Purana dealing with the life of the Hindu God Krishna and various avatars of Vishnu. What had previously been known of Indian literature in Germany had been translated from the English. Some Sanskrit editions that separate the Gita from the epic as an independent text, as well as translators, however, add chapter titles such as each chapter being a particular form of yoga. The opposite of these are demonic, such as cruelty, conceit, hypocrisy and being inhumane, states Krishna. [210] Therefore, 'Field of action' implies the field of righteousness, where truth will eventually triumph, states Fowler. 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