• Melodies should be something easy to sing with a recognisable tune. Starting in 1523, Martin Luther began translating worship texts into German from the Latin. DeepBach: a Steerable Model for Bach chorales generation Ga etan Hadjeres 1;2, Fran˘cois Pachet 1 Sony Computer Science Laboratories, Paris 2 LIP6, Universit e Pierre et Marie Curie gaetan.hadjeres@etu-upmc.fr pachetcsl@gmail.com Abstract. 4) Two settings (BWVs 27.6 and 43.11) that are taken directly from the 1682 Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch (NLGB), an important hymnal of Bach’s day. Johann Sebastian Bach 's earliest extant compositions, works for organ which he possibly wrote before his fifteenth birthday, include the chorales BWV 700, 724, 1091, 1094, 1097, 1112, 1113 and 1119. Luther was not only the founder and guiding spirit of the Protestant Reformation, he was a poet of genius and, as a composer (or at least a melodist), remarkably imaginative, versatile, and effective. Choral versions of all these chorales may be found on YouTube by searching for the BWV number. 3) Two settings from the BWV 253–438 individual chorales are slightly reworked versions of chorales from the cantatas (BWV 359=154.3, 279=158.4). For the scholar studying the evolution of Bach’s chorale style, all revisions of chorale settings are of primary interest, perhaps warranting the counting of such variants separately. Many of the practices from this period have continued today, as well as … David Camwell Review by Heidi Radtke. This means that 192 chorales in this collection have survived by way of secondary sources and, therefore, should be considered slightly less authentic. The melody of this setting is attributed to Bach and is not from the Lutheran chorale tradition. The former setting has also been attributed to C.P.E. And here the complications begin. The primary problem with this document in regards to the question of authenticity lies in the fact that C.P.E. Many of J. S. Bach's cantatas are based on Lutheran chorale or hymn tunes. Bach closes Cantata 27 (from October 1726) with a setting taken directly from the, Bach closes Cantata 43 (from May 1726) with a setting taken directly from the. • These melodies are broken up into phrases, which are identified by pause marks – this is where you put your cadences. Eliminate these and the number of entirely unique settings that came directly from Bach’s pen (or from the pen of one of his personal copyists) is only 214! Certainly this cantata employs the most famous of all Lutheran chorales, “Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott” (A might fortress is our God), a chorale written by Luther himself. Bach Chorales: A Guide. [1] He composed melodies for some hymns himself, such as "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott" ("A Mighty Fortress Is Our God"), and even a few harmonized settings. Though some were original, many of the melodies were taken from popular Lutheran church hymns, secular folk songs, and Gregorian sources. 1 1 arr. contributions to Western music was Bach’s chorale harmonizations. J. S. Bach's church cantatas are single-movement works. He was also schooled in the Lutheran … The answer to the question posed in the title of this brief essay is somewhere between 216 and 420, depending on many factors. Chorale Melodies used in Bach's Vocal Works Sorted by Title : This section of the Bach Cantatas Website (BCW) provides a comprehensive list of all the chorale melodies [hereafter referred to simply as ‘CM’s] in Bach’s oeuvre. The vast majority of his sacred and choral compositional output, including his well-known Cantatas and Passions, came during the years he served in Leipzig at the churches of St. Nicholas and St. Thomas (1723-50). The eight other settings that feature melodies attributed, to varying levels of confidence, to Bach himself, are BWVs 248.42, 299, 315, 345, 357, 384, 400, and 1122. Second, Dietel was not a terribly accurate copyist and numerous errors pervade his document. Attributed to C.P.E. Riemenschneider 59 corresponds with the later version. [7], Johannes Zahn published Die Melodien der deutschen evangelischen Kirchenlieder (the tunes of the German Evangelical hymns) in six volumes from 1889 to 1893. Over the course of his career, Bach composed 371 four-voiced chorales. All midi files compressed. A Lutheran chorale is a musical setting of a Lutheran hymn, intended to be sung by a congregation in a German Protestant Church service. settings that do not appear in the Dietel) should be approached with a slightly lowered sense of authenticity. Since speculations regarding the number of lost church cantatas vary considerably, it is entirely impossible to know how many Bach chorales have been lost. The answer to this question is somewhere in the neighborhood of 228, a number that only slightly reaches half of the overall total! Classical, Clasica Okay. SING and SIGN Choir and Orchestra. Bach’s great contribution to the Lutheran chorale tradition stems not from his own composing of chorale melodies (less than ten of the 400+ four–part chorales feature melodies that are attributed to Bach himself), but to the great skill and care with which he treated this tradition. Lutheran musical worship is structured around - hymns known as -, which are specific to a particular service. Help listening to and downloading MIDI files. Phillip M. Hash Winchester Old Lutheran Chorales 2 3 4 5 Flute/Picc. To take but one example, several instances of consecutives fifths in Bach’s chorales were "corrected" by Emmanuel or other early editors. Bach used a revision of a setting by Daniel Vetter for his Cantata 8 from September 1724. [click], we test our workflow on Bach chorales, finding out that our re-trained results are 93.5% accurate, meaning there are 6.5% results that are different from the expert, and among them some of these are still legitimate analyses because there are sometimes multiple correct analyses in chord labeling. For the literary genre, see, Hymnody of continental Europe § Reformation, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Learn how and when to remove these template messages, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Der Evangelische Kirchengesang im ersten Jahrhunderte der Kirchenverbesserung, Der Evangelische Kirchengesang im siebzehnten Jahrhunderte, Der Evangelische Kirchengesang im achtzehnten Jahrhunderte, Die Melodien der deutschen evangelischen Kirchenlieder, Die siebenzeiligen und jambischen achtzeiligen Melodien, Die Melodien von den achtzeiligen trochäischen bis zu den zehnzeiligen inkl. Today, many of the Lutheran chorales are familiar as hymns used in Protestant churches, sung in four-voice harmony. All of these happenings found their basis in the Word of God and the Teachings of Martin Luther. =BWV 414 (=Riemenschneider 148). [3] These included the Achtliederbuch (known as the first Lutheran hymnal) and the Erfurt Enchiridion (both with unaccompanied melodic settings), as well as Johann Walter's Eyn geystlich Gesangk Buchleyn, the first to contain part song settings of Lutheran hymns. Bach’s known compositions number over 1,100 and cover all musical genres of his day with the exception of opera. The Free Lutheran Chorale-Book is an ongoing project with the goal of making the best of Lutheran hymnody readily and freely available in English to everyone. Bach Society Houston, Bach Cantata Vespers Choir of Grace Lutheran, The Bach Choir of Bethlehem, Emmanuel Music Boston, Bach Cantata Choir Portland 8.00–9.30 pm / Lecture-recital »for the amusement of the mind« Mahan Esfahani (harpsichord) 9.30–10.30 pm / Bach – Listen with your eyes – POSTPONED! This is evident, because Bach was born in a part of Germany that was dominated by Lutheranism. So how many Bach four–part chorales are there? Collections of Chorale-Settings by J. S. Bach; Manuscript collections 149 Chorales (Dittel, 1734-35) 3 Choräle zu Trauungen (1734-38) 135 Chorales (Fasch, 1762) 383 Chorales (1770-89) Published collections 371 Vierstimmige Choralgesänge (1784-87) 319 Mehrstimmige Choralgesänge und geistliche Arien (1850 … [6], Scholarship regarding Lutheran chorales intensified from the 19th century. We use the re-trained results as chord labels for our research. Attributed to C.P.E. When he worked as an organist, J. S. Bach ’s duties included accompanying congregational singing, and he was familiar with the Lutheran hymns. (BWV 229.2), which is certainly chorale–like (apart from the rather disjunct melodic contour), but which features a melody that is almost certainly composed by Bach himself and, thus, is not taken from the Lutheran chorale tradition. bach-chorales.com: Extra Information Publication timeline to 1843: Navigation etc. But even all of these 192 do not attain a consistent level of authenticity. The words are often sung to a rhyming scheme and are in a strophic form (t… The German word Choral, which was originally used to describe Latin plainchant melodies, was first applied to the Lutheran hymn only in the later sixteenth century. Bach’s forerunners thus provided a framework for the chorale that was established in the lifeblood of every Lutheran composer by the time of Bach’s appearance on the scene in 1685. 8) Two additional settings (BWV 500a, 1084) come from the St. Mark Passion Pasticcio, the authenticity of which settings is questioned (and which I personally have come to doubt due to divergences from the Bach chorale style), despite the fact that they have been assigned BWV numbers. 1. From its birth in the early Reformation period, to the time of Bach and the Baroque, a great deal of change occurred within the Lutheran Church: new genres were formed, new practices emerged, and new controversies arose. Below is a table summarizing these settings. "24 Bach Chorales for Saxophone Quartet by J.S. cantatas, passions, etc.) This is particularly true of the four–part second movement from the motet Komm, Jesu, Komm! (S) Oboe (S) Clarinet in B b 1 (S) Clarinet in B b 2 (A) Clarinet in B b 3 (T) However, if we were to pursue the question of authenticity to its fullest extent, other factors are worth considering. Bach in three early manuscripts, including the newly rediscovered Fasch manuscript (SA 818). A chorale is a melody to which a hymn is sung by a congregation in a German Protestant Church service. The reader is left to answer, and that answer may depend on the reasons for counting them. The second important secondary source is a collection of 371 Bach chorales posthumously published by Breitkopf in the 1780s and edited primarily by Bach’s son, C. P. E. Bach, the source on which the ubiquitous Riemenschneider edition is based. [citation needed] For example, he fitted the melody of the hymn "Veni redemptor gentium" to three different texts, "Verleih uns Frieden gnädiglich", "Erhalt uns, Herr, bei deinem Wort", and "Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland". 2) Two slightly different versions of two chorales from the St. John Passion exist (BWVs 245.3 and 245.5), the first versions of each coming from the premiere performance of the SJP and the later versions coming from a later repeat performance. Jesus Christus, unser Heiland, der den Tod... Jesus Christus, unser Heiland, der von uns... Christian dance, electronic, and techno artists, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lutheran_chorale&oldid=996935385, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2017, Articles needing additional references from September 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles to be expanded from October 2017, Articles needing more viewpoints from October 2017, Articles needing additional references from October 2017, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 07:02. 2 and B–Bc 16083 MSM. There are 419 Bach chorale settings that have been assigned separate BWV numbers, and there is one additional setting attributed to Bach (see point 9 below) that has not yet been assigned a BWV number. BWV 416, to which Riemenschneider 47 corresponds, is the later version. One thing is for certain: the answer is not 371 or 389. On the other hand, if we were to tweak the question just a bit and ask how many entirely unique chorale settings were most certainly composed (mostly) by Bach, thereby eliminating 1) instances of Bach himself reusing a setting, 2) instances of duplicate appearances in the Schmieder catalogue, 3) other instances of variant settings, 4) the two instances of Bach using settings from the NLGB, 5) the four settings that are (at least to a significant degree) attributed to other composers, and 6) the two St. Mark Pasticcio settings of dubious authenticity, then 20 settings can be eliminated, lowering the total from 420 to 400. These individual chorales have survived by way of two important secondary sources. See more. Of the six in the former category, one is identical in every way (75.7=100.6), four are identical but transposed to different keys (12.7=69a.6, 41.6=171.6, 120a.6=137.5, and 244.15=244.17), and three are identical but with slight variation in the obbligato instrumentation (12.7=69a.6, 59.3=175.7, and 120a.6=137.5). Bach in two other early manuscripts, D–Bsa SA 817, Fas. false. So how many extant chorales are there? gives this collection a certain amount of primacy among the secondary sources. [1][4], Luther and his contemporaries referred to these vernacular hymns as geistliche Lieder (spiritual songs), Psalmen (psalms), christliche Lieder (Christian songs), and geistliche (or christliche) Gesänge or Kirchengesänge. In certain modern usage, this term may include classical settings of such hymns and works of a similar character. The complications occur when considering which of the following settings, all of which are included in the 420, should be eliminated from that total number. This is arguably the best known of Bach’s cantatas (fans of Cantata 140, Wachet auf might disagree, but it would certainly be a close contest). 10) Finally, nine settings from Bach’s output may not qualify as chorales in the truest sense of the word. Hold click (Mac) or right click (Windows) on the blue links below. These two settings are identical apart from their keys—BWV 414 (=R148) is a M3 lower. To get started, click on one of the categories below, peruse the indexes above, or search for a hymn title or subject: The Buxtehude Chaconne in e-minor concludes the program. This is a four–part adaptation of a three–part setting by Pachelbel. First, it’s important to clarify that we’re trying to determine the number of extant chorale settings. The first is a collection of 149 Bach chorales handwritten by Ludwig Dietel around the year 1735 in Leipzig when Dietel was a student in Bach’s Thomasschule. enthaltend, Die übrigen Melodien von den elfzeiligen an, nebst Anhang und Nachlese, sowie das chronologische Verzeichnis der Erfinder von Melodien und alphabetische Register der Melodien, Schlüßband: Chronologisches Verzeichnis der benutzten Gesang-, Melodien- und Choralbücher, und die letzten Nachträge, Complete sets of all four-part Bach chorale settings, The Chorales of Bach's St. Matthew Passion. Copyright 2018. In modern times the chorale is considered to be a musical setting, usually polyphonic, of a traditional religious text. [1] The first Lutheran hymns were published in 1524. While he was director of music in Lutheran churches, he took the standard Lutheran hymns and reworked them for four voices, with one voice retaining the original melod. 7) Two settings (BWV 145a and BWV 272) are attributed to Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach in the newly rediscovered Fasch manuscript (SA 818). However, two unfortunate facts regarding the Dietel collection remain. [2] For other hymns he adapted Gregorian chant melodies used in Catholic worship to fit new German texts, sometimes using the same melody more than once. Save to your computer. Recording of Lutheran Chorale followed by Chorale Prelude. Two slightly varied versions of this setting exist. In the 20th century, important contributions to the genre were made by Hugo Distler and Ernst Pepping. Although each chorale contains its own unique characteristics, most chorales are identifiable by some similar musical and textual features. Bach/Arr. 5) One setting (BWV 8.6) is a revision of a chorale setting by Daniel Vetter. Amazon.de/musik: Mehl, Maurice, Bach, J.S. [citation needed], The musicologist Carl von Winterfeld published three volumes of Der evangelische Kirchengesang und sein Verhältniss zur Kunst des Tonsatzes (Evangelical church-song and its relation to the art of composition) from 1843 to 1847. DAY 2: 6 HOURS PASSION – with fervour. With these deficiencies in mind, one could well argue that those of the 192 individual chorales that appear in the Dietel collection attain a slightly higher level of authenticity A) given that the level of certainty that Dietel copied these directly from original manuscripts, and B) given that C. P. E. Bach took such editorial liberties with the settings. This figure includes six of the nine duplicates mentioned in point 1) above, as well as points 2), 4), 5), 8) and 9). true. 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