It has perhaps the heaviest functional load of click consonants in a Bantu language (approximately tied with Yeyi), with one count finding that 10% of basic vocabulary items contained a click.[10]. Overview. Clicks 2 is- and iz- replace isi- and izi- respectively before stems beginning with a vowel, e.g. The language is also rich in idioms. The rest of the elements are placed to the left or to the right of the verb root. isiXhosa is a member of the "Nguni" language group, and is most closely related to isiZulu, isiNdebele and SiSwati.. isiXhosa (Xhosa) language family tree. (They may also be voiced between vowels in some speaking styles.) The orthographic b in mb is the voiced plosive [mb]. However, some of the letters have a different pronunciation than as in English. In case something is wrong or missing you are kindly requested to leave a message below and one of our staff members will be more than happy to help you out. It is a Bantu language closely related to Zulu, Swazi, and Ndebele. See Sands & Gunnink (2019) "Clicks on the fringes of the Kalahari Basin Area." The Xhosa language (Isixhosa), of which there are variations, is part of the Nguni language group. The Xhosa are a people of South Africa . Whenever /w/ follows a labial consonant, it changes to /j/, which then triggers palatalisation of the consonant. They are better described as slack voiced than as breathy voiced. Xhosa-speaking peoples are divided into several tribes with related but distinct heritages. The clan name is the name of the first ancestor or family that gave birth to the clan. The main tribes are the Mpondo, Mpondomise, Bomvana, Xesibe, and Thembu. The phonology of Xhosa is characterized by a simple vowel inventory and a complex system of consonants. [22] The Bantu ancestor of Xhosa did not have clicks, which attests to a strong historical contact with a San language that did. John Bennie was a Scottish Presbyterian missionary and early Xhosa linguist. The Xhosa language is properly referred to as isiXhosa . The Xhosa language is a Niger-Congo language, of the Bantu language branch. Their use in education has been governed by legislation, beginning with the Bantu Education Act, 1953. As with other South African languages, Xhosa is characterized by respectful forms of address for elders and in-laws. Xhosa is part of the branch of Nguni languages known as Zunda languages, which also include Zulu, Southern Ndebele and Northern Ndebele. As with other South African languages, Xhosa is characterized by respectful forms of address for elders and in-laws. The prenasalized versions have a very short voicing at the onset which then releases in an ejective, like the prenasalized affricates, while the phonemically nasal clicks have a very long voicing through the consonant. When consonants are prenasalised, their pronunciation and spelling may change. Fricatives become affricates. AmaXhosa migrated to the east coast of Africa and came across Khoisan-speaking people; "as a result of this contact, the Xhosa people borrowed some Khoisan words along with their pronunciation, for instance, the click sounds of the Khoisan languages". They are truly voiced only after nasals, but the oral occlusion is then very short in stops, and it usually does not occur at all in clicks. "Language in South Africa: the role of language in national transformation, reconstruction and development.". Photo by Pixabay.com. (eds), These are analogous to the slack-voice nasals, "Xhosa alphabet, pronunciation and language", "isiNdebele for beginners. Tones are rarely marked in the written language, but they can be indicated a [à], á [á], â [áà], ä [àá]. Ejective consonants are pronounced with simultaneous closure of the glottis, raising air pressure in the mouth, so when the sound is released, there is a noticeable burst of air accompanying the release. Most syllables end in a vowel, and there are no consonant clusters. In addition, it … That is, da may be pronounced [dʱa̤] (or, equivalently, [d̥a̤]). The Xhosa language is properly referred to as isiXhosa. Xhosa nouns belong to 17 different classes, roughly based on semantic categories, e.g., there are classes for human beings, animals, plants, objects of various shapes, etc. Tone, stress and vowel length are not indicated. Ejective consonants In addition, the Bhaca and Mfengu have adopted the Xhosa language as medium of teaching at school. Using the prefixes, nouns can be grouped into noun classes, which are numbered consecutively, to ease comparison with other Bantu languages. The following table gives an overview of Xhosa noun classes, arranged according to singular-plural pairs. The inventory is taken from Wikipedia. Xhosa verbs are highly inflected. Maho (2009) lists Mpondo (Pondo), Xesibe, Bomvana, Gaika (Ngqika), Gcaleka, Thembu, Mpondomise, Ndlambe, and Hlubi.[4]. Some support the use of English and see its use in education as de facto segregation. Palatalisation is a change that affects labial consonants whenever they are immediately followed by /j/. The verb is modified by affixes to mark subject, object, tense, aspect and mood. The term “Xhosa” can be used both to refer to the language and its native speakers, known as Xhosa people of South Africa. The Xhosa themselves are somewhat ambivalent about the use of their language in education. 3 • LANGUAGE. The original stanza was: Additional stanzas were written later by Sontonga and other writers, with the original verse translated into Sotho and Afrikaans, as well as English. Henry Hare Dugmore helped translate the entire Bible in Xhosa language. isandla/izandla (hand/hands). 4 Before monosyllabic stems in some words. There are five places of articulation at which click consonants occur. The role of indigenous languages in South Africa is complex and ambiguous. Xhosa is one of the 11 official languages recognized by the South African Constitution, and in 2006 it was determined that just over 7 million South Africans speak Xhosa as a home language. [16] In the modern period, it has also borrowed, slightly, from both Afrikaans and English. [23], Proportion of the South African population that speaks Xhosa at home, Webb, Vic. When plain voiceless clicks (c, x, q) are prenasalized, they become slack voiced nasal (ngc, ngx, ngq). Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika is part of the national anthem of South Africa, national anthem of Tanzania and Zambia, and the former anthem of Zimbabwe and Namibia. (3) language family (4) my wife and family (5) He encouraged everyone to put pressure on family , relatives and friends to turn out. Well your search ends here, because our team have found all the answers to today’s New York Times crossword. Written Xhosa employs Latin alphabet style. Thus, the word for ‘people’ is abantu in all these languages. Xhosa /ˈkɔːsə, ˈkoʊsə/[5][6][7] (Xhosa: [ᵏǁʰɔsa]),[missing tone] also isiXhosa, is a Nguni Bantu language and one of the official languages of South Africa and Zimbabwe. The Xhosa nation is made up of tribes and clans. The more notable characteristic is their depressor effect on the tone of the syllable.[21]. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, clicks are represented by placing the assigned symbol for the place of click articulation to the left of a symbol for a nonclick sound at the same place of articulation. Here are a few of these words. Xhosa is a tonal language with two inherent phonemic tones: low and high. Like other Southern Bantu languages, Xhosa has borrowed words from the Khoisan languages, as well as from English and Afrikaans. Implosive consonants The language of instruction at universities in South Africa is English or Afrikaans, and Xhosa is taught as a subject, both for native and for non-native speakers. Below are some common words and sentences in Xhosa. Xhosa is spoken as a first language by 8.2 million people and by 11 million as a second language in South Africa, mostly in Eastern Cape Province and Transkei. Xhosa falls under the umbrella of the Bantu languages, and is a representative of the south-western Nguni family. No change when the following consonant is itself a nasal. Many Xhosa also live in and around Cape Town , one of South Africa’s capital cities. 3. 1 Before monosyllabic stems, e.g. ; Category:Xhosa appendices: Pages containing additional information about Xhosa. Family words in Xhosa. Xhosa (isiXhosa) is the southernmost member of the Bantoid group of the Niger-Congo language family in Africa. (7) You are asked to encourage as many of your friends and family to donate blood. The murmured clicks, plosives and affricates are only partially voiced, with the following vowel murmured for some speakers. Besides pulmonic egressive sounds, which are found in all spoken languages, it has a series of ejective stops and one implosive stop. Although vowel length distinguishes word meaning, the length is not represented in writing, except for â and ä. Xhosa has a complex system of consonants, including some uncommon ones. 15% of its vocabulary is estimated to be of Khoekhoe (Khoisan) origin. Xhosa is spoken as a first language by approximately 8.2 million people and by another 11 million as a second language in South Africa, mostly in … There still remain today those who are of the ethnic group amaXhosa, though in current mod… (6) The club is also offering family season tickets for up to two adults and two children. The red letters are orthographic representations of the sounds. Long vowels are phonemic but are usually not written except for â and ä, which are each sequences of two vowels with different tones that are realized as long vowels with contour tones (â high–low = falling, ä low–high = rising). Ngqika is considered to be the standard variety. In Clem et al. Ever since Xhosa and Zulu were reduced to a written form in the early 19th century, Xhosa and Zulu writers have produced various works of fiction, ranging from poetry to novels. It has 18 click consonants (in comparison, Juǀ'hoan, spoken in Botswana and Namibia, has 48, and Taa, with roughly 4,000 speakers in Botswana, has 83). Mpondo (Pondo), Xesibe, Bomwana, Gaika, Gcaleka, Thembu, Mpondomise, Ndlambe (Ethnologue). The normal word order in Xhosa is Verb-Object (the subject is part of the verb compound). Nguni languages are, in turn, part of the much larger group of Bantu languages. Language family that includes Xhosa and Zulu crossword clue appeared first on Daily Crossword Solver. They have close cultural ties with the Zulu and the Swazi peoples. The Xhosa language (isiXhosa) belongs to the Niger–Congo languages family, and more specifically to the Bantu branch. Terms of Use It is one of the eleven official languages of the Republic of South Africa. Xhosa is an agglutinative language that expresses grammatical functions by adding prefixes and suffixes to roots. The name “Xhosa” comes from that of a legendary leader called uXhosa. It is also spoken in Botswana and Lesotho. Xhosa has a Roman-based orthography which was developed by missionaries in the 19th century and adapted to represent the sounds of the language. I must admit that this clue is not so easy. Aspirated clicks become prenasalized ejected clicks. People also like. 2. Bennie, along with John Ross (another missionary), set up a printing press in the Tyhume Valley and the first printed works in Xhosa came out in 1823 from the Lovedale Press in the Alice region of the Eastern Cape. Marking of the plural number depends on the noun class. Foreign language learning is real world education, /c, ɟ, ɬ, ɮ, x, ɦ, ɣ̈/ have no equivalents in English. Otherwise, they tend to be tenuis (plain) stops. [11] Zunda languages effectively form a dialect continuum of variously mutually intelligible varieties. They refer to themselves as the amaXhosa and their language as Xhosa. The murmur no longer shifts to the following vowel. An estimated 15% of Xhosa vocabulary is of San origin. [14] There is a small but significant Xhosa community of about 200,000 in Zimbabwe. Xhosa, Zulu, Ndelebele and Swati share most of their basic vocabulary as well as grammar. Therefore memorizing them will give you a 70% boost in the language. It is essential to get the correct interpretations based on both the carrier’s language and the linguistic system. Xhosa is spoken by 7.6 million people, or about 18% of the South African population. It shows the journey to manhood, and documents the ins and outs of the… Xhosa has ten vowels. Privacy Policy Words for family members and other relatives in Xhosa (isiXhosa), a Bantu language spoken in South Africa and Lesotho. Northern Ndebele language in Africa", "South Africa Population grows to 44.8 Million", "Isixhosa Ulwimi Lwabantu Abangesosininzi eZimbabwe: Ukuphila Nokulondolozwa Kwaso", "Wakanda Is a Fake Country, but the African Language in 'Black Panther' is Real", Xhosa basic lexicon at the Global Lexicostatistical Database, Commission for Cultural, Religious and Linguistic Community Rights, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Xhosa_language&oldid=999100104, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2003, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles needing examples from December 2018, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 1996, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Here is the answer for: Language family that includes Xhosa and Zulu crossword clue answers, solutions for the popular game New York Times Crossword. In 1996[update], the literacy rate for first-language Xhosa speakers was estimated at 50%.[16]. Xhosa is rich in uncommon consonants. As of 2003[update] approximately 5.3 million Xhosa-speakers, the majority, live in the Eastern Cape, followed by the Western Cape (approximately 2 million), Gauteng (671,045), the Free State (246,192), KwaZulu-Natal (219,826), North West (214,461), Mpumalanga (46,553), the Northern Cape (51,228), and Limpopo (14,225). Fricatives become affricated and, if voiceless, they become ejectives as well, at least with some speakers: mf is pronounced [ɱp̪fʼ], ndl is pronounced [ndɮ], n+hl becomes ntl [ntɬʼ], n+z becomes ndz [ndz], etc. Take a look at Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Xhosa. While palatalisation occurred historically, it is still productive, as is shown by palatalization before the passive suffix /-w/. This is the smarter way of online learning. The term is a compound adapted from the words khoekhoe ‘person’ and saan ‘bush dweller’ in Nama, one of the Khoisan languages, and scholars have applied the words—either separately or conjoined—to refer to economic, social, physical, and linguistic features of certain aboriginal groups of … Moreover, Xhosa does not generally tolerate sequences of a labial consonant plus /w/. At the secondary level, instruction in schools serving Xhosa-speaking students is in English. Xhosa lesson by Nelson Sebezela, guide for Calabash Tours in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, interviewed by Patrick Leighton. Because of its many "click" sounds the Xhosa language, or isiXhosa as they call it themselves, is different from most other African languages. [15] Also, a small community of Xhosa speakers (18,000) live in Quthing District, Lesotho. For example. isiXhosa is one of the official languages of South Africa. In the Marvel Cinematic Universe films Captain America: Civil War and Black Panther, the language spoken in the fictional African nation of Wakanda is Xhosa. The pocket of air produced by the resulting enclosure is rarefied by the sucking action of the tongue. Dental clicks are represented by the letter c, alveolar clicks are indicated by q, and lateral clicks are written with the letter x. Vowel length is not always represented in writing. But, as with any language, Xhosa had a rich history of oral traditions from which the society taught, informed, and entertained one another. The language is also studied as a subject. High tone is represented in writing by an acute accent over the vowel, i.g., á, low tone is indicated by by a grave accent, i.g., à. Below we picked 70% of the most commonly used words. Vowels can be either short or long. The best-known performer of Xhosa songs outside South Africa was Miriam Makeba, whose Click Song #1 (Xhosa Qongqothwane) and "Click Song #2" (Baxabene Ooxam) are known for their large number of click sounds. Adjectives, possessive pronouns and demonstratives agree with the noun they modify in class and number. Top 10 Sites to watch Telugu Movies Online in Hd Quality. The movie shows the Xhosa tradition of ulwaluko, it is told from the perspective of a homosexual Xhosa man. Xhosa is, to some extent, mutually intelligible with Zulu and Northern Ndebele, and other Nguni languages to a lesser extent. The Xhosa, formerly called Kaffir or Kafir (Arabic for ‘infidel’), are a cluster of related peoples who have inhabited Eastern Cape Province and Transkei, South Africa, since before the 16th century. Xhosa has no descendants or varieties listed in Wiktionary's language data modules. Xhosa has the following clicks consonants which can be modified in a variety of ways, such as aspirated, breathy-voiced or nasalized. However, tones are usually not indicated in writing. Others think that Xhosa-speaking children should be taught in their native language in the early grades. Xhosa is written using a Latin alphabet. They are thought to have migrated to this region along the east coast of Africa and through central Africa. This clue belongs to New York Times Crossword February 3 2019 Answers. Contact Us, 8.2 million people and by 11 million as a second language in South Africa, mostly in Eastern Cape Province and Transkei. It is a Bantu language closely related to Zulu, Swazi, and Ndebele. They form part of the southern Nguni and speak mutually intelligible dialects of Xhosa, a Bantu language of the Niger-Congo family. All education at the university level is in English or Afrikaans. Most syllables end in a vowel, and there are no consonant clusters. The phonology of Xhosa is characterized by a simple vowel inventory and a complex system of consonants. Xhosa is well known for its set of three major clicks. How difficult is it to learn Xhosa? iliso (eye), uluhlu (list). l(. Xhosa. Literary works, including prose and poetry, are available in Xhosa, as are newspapers and magazines. This produces an audible noise. In keeping with many other Southern Bantu languages, Xhosa is an agglutinative language, with an array of prefixes and suffixes that are attached to root words. The language is also rich in idioms. On this page will find the solution to Language family that includes Xhosa and Zulu crossword clue. For example, Radebe is the clan, but the nation is called AmaHlubi. The Xhosa language employs 26 letters from the Latin alphabet. 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