Johan Berte is the leader of the station design team and manager of the project which conducts research in climatology, glaciology and microbiology. [69], Fossil Nothofagus leaves in the Meyer Desert Formation of the Sirius Group show that intermittent warm periods allowed Nothofagus shrubs to cling to the Dominion Range as late as 3–4 Ma (mid-late Pliocene). Another unique spectacle is diamond dust, a ground-level cloud composed of tiny ice crystals. Rate 5 stars Rate 4 stars Rate 3 stars Rate 2 stars Rate 1 star . In 1969, a Japanese expedition discovered nine meteorites. Even in the late 17th century, after explorers had found that South America and Australia were not part of the fabled "Antarctica", geographers believed that the continent was much larger than its actual size. There are no countries in Antarctica but there is the Antarctic Treaty to protect Antarctica and preserve the continent for science. During the Cambrian period, Gondwana had a mild climate. [107], The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (also known as the Environmental Protocol or Madrid Protocol) came into force in 1998, and is the main instrument concerned with conservation and management of biodiversity in Antarctica. Some of these claims are recognised by other countries, but many aren’t. If all of this ice were melted, sea levels would rise about 60 m (200 ft). It was once believed that the lake had been sealed off for 500,000 to one million years, but a recent survey suggests that, every so often, there are large flows of water from one lake to another. In the dry valleys, the same effect occurs over a rock base, leading to a desiccated landscape.[53]. The Antarctic Treaty prohibits any military activity in Antarctica, including the establishment of military bases and fortifications, military manoeuvres, and weapons testing. Many countries have scientific research stations on Antarctica. Antarctica covers more than 14 million km2 (5,400,000 sq mi),[1] making it the fifth-largest continent, about 1.3 times as large as Europe. Not all vessels associated with Antarctic tourism are members of IAATO, but IAATO members account for 95% of the tourist activity. As you know, blogging changed my life. ", "Fastest unsupported (kite assisted) journey to the South Pole taking just 34 days", "Snow in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica", "Scientists Discover Undersea Volcano Off Antarctica", "New Antarctica Map Is Like 'Putting on Glasses for the First Time and Seeing 20/20' – A high resolution terrain map of Earth's frozen continent will help researchers better track changes on the ice as the planet warms", "Temperate rainforests near the South Pole during peak Cretaceous warmth", "Anatomy of a basal sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Early Jurassic Hanson Formation of Antarctica", "Antarctica yields first land mammal fossil", "New CO2 data helps unlock the secrets of Antarctic formation", "A forest grows in Antarctica. Antarctica is one of the rare places on Earth that does not have an Indigenous population so every person that lives in or visits Antarctica is an alien! West Antarctica was partially in the Northern Hemisphere, and during this period large amounts of sandstones, limestones and shales were deposited. On the continent itself, the large volume of ice present stores around 70% of the world's fresh water. Belgian polar explorer Alain Hubert stated: "This base will be the first of its kind to produce zero emissions, making it a unique model of how energy should be used in the Antarctic." More than 235 marine organisms live in both polar regions, having bridged the gap of 12,000 km (7,456 mi). All attempted crossings, with no kites or resupplies, that have tried to go from the true continental edges, where the ice meets the sea, have failed due to the great distance that needs to be covered. The extent of sea ice around Antarctica (in terms of square kilometers of coverage) has remained roughly constant in recent decades, although the amount of variation it has experienced in its thickness is unclear. [147], Meteorites from Antarctica are an important area of study of material formed early in the solar system; most are thought to come from asteroids, but some may have originated on larger planets. [160], East Antarctica is a cold region with a ground base above sea level and occupies most of the continent. At a number of points in its long history, it was farther north, experienced a tropical or temperate climate, was covered in forests,[61] and inhabited by various ancient life forms. Since Antarctica is largely uninhabited, the continent is not officially divided up into time zones. [133][134][135] As of 2015, there are two Wells Fargo ATMs in Antarctica.[136]. The sheet has been of recent concern because of the small possibility of its collapse. Europe comprises 51 countries. [180] Ozone absorbs large amounts of ultraviolet radiation in the stratosphere. Antarctica will remain to be used as intended for research and as a nature reserve. Click - https://bit.ly/2GcnL6T How many countries in Antarctica. At 0.00008 people per square kilometre, it is by far the least densely populated continent. The Antarctic Peninsula began to form during the Jurassic period (206–146 Ma), and islands gradually rose out of the ocean. 2012, found that different satellite methods for measuring ice mass and change were in good agreement and combining methods leads to more certainty with East Antarctica, West Antarctica, and the Antarctic Peninsula changing in mass by +14 ± 43, −65 ± 26, and −20 ± 14 gigatonnes (Gt) per year. Many countries conducted their first Antarctic explorations and constructed the first research stations on Antarctica. The main mineral resource known on the continent is coal. However, there are a number of research stations, each of which observes its own local time. At 14,200,000 square kilometres (5,500,000 square miles), it is the fifth-largest continent and nearly twice the size of Australia. Among them was the founder of Grytviken, Captain Carl Anton Larsen, a prominent Norwegian whaler and explorer who, along with his family, adopted British citizenship in 1910. Given the latitude, long periods of constant darkness or constant sunlight create climates unfamiliar to human beings in much of the rest of the world.[80]. By the start of the Devonian period (416 Ma), Gondwana was in more southern latitudes and the climate was cooler, though fossils of land plants are known from this time. He is credited with implementing mechanised land transport on the continent and conducting extensive geological and biological research. The continent of Antarctica contains no countries and no country flags. Most of these meteorites have fallen onto the ice sheet in the last million years. Antarctica is the driest continent of the seven continents. In the interior, wind speeds are typically moderate. The Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting is advised on environmental and conservation issues in Antarctica by the Committee for Environmental Protection. Third, the Earth is at aphelion in July (i.e., the Earth is farthest from the Sun in the Antarctic winter), and the Earth is at perihelion in January (i.e., the Earth is closest to the Sun in the Antarctic summer). Ammonites were common in the seas around Antarctica, and dinosaurs were also present, though only three Antarctic dinosaur genera (Cryolophosaurus and Glacialisaurus, from the Hanson Formation,[63] and Antarctopelta) have been described to date. Those features can also be observed in algae and cyanobacteria, suggesting that these are adaptations to the conditions prevailing in Antarctica. [144], On 6 September 2007 Belgian-based International Polar Foundation unveiled the Princess Elisabeth station, the world's first zero-emissions polar science station in Antarctica to research climate change. Lake Vostok, discovered beneath Russia's Vostok Station in 1996, is the largest of these subglacial lakes. A lower air temperature of −94.7 °C (−138.5 °F) was recorded in 2010 by satellite—however, it may be influenced by ground temperatures and was not recorded at a height of 7 feet (2 m) above the surface as required for the official air temperature records. Antarctica is often called "The Frozen Continent". East Antarctica is colder than its western counterpart because of its higher elevation. The original signatories of the Antarctic Treaty included seven countries with territorial claims. The Weddell seal, a "true seal", is named after Sir James Weddell, commander of British sealing expeditions in the Weddell Sea. They are: New Zealand; Australia; France; Norway; UK; Chile; Argentina; So what interest do they have taking a piece of this remote continent? [6] Most of Antarctica is a polar desert, with annual precipitation of 200 mm (7.9 in) along the coast and far less inland; there has been no rain there for almost 2 million years, yet 80% of the world freshwater reserves are stored there, enough to raise global sea levels by about 60 metres (200 ft) if all of it were to melt. The name Antarctica is the romanised version of the Greek compound word ἀνταρκτική (antarktiké), feminine of ἀνταρκτικός (antarktikós),[9] meaning "opposite to the Arctic", "opposite to the north". Satellite images from 25 years ago seemingly show it. Endemic Antarctic fungi also include certain dung-inhabiting species which have had to evolve in response to the double challenge of extreme cold while growing on dung, and the need to survive passage through the gut of warm-blooded animals. In Eastern Antarctica, seed ferns or pteridosperms became abundant and large amounts of sandstone and shale were laid down at this time. Sand and silts were laid down in what is now the Ellsworth, Horlick and Pensacola Mountains. Geologically, West Antarctica closely resembles the Andes mountain range of South America. It is important to understand the various types of Antarctic ice to understand possible effects on sea levels and the implications of global cooling. Sheperd et al. [174][175] According to NASA, the most widespread Antarctic surface melting of the past 30 years occurred in 2005, when an area of ice comparable in size to California briefly melted and refroze; this may have resulted from temperatures rising to as high as 5 °C (41 °F). [84], The first child born in the southern polar region was Norwegian girl Solveig Gunbjørg Jacobsen, born in Grytviken on 8 October 1913, and her birth was registered by the resident British Magistrate of South Georgia. [45] The first women to step onto the South Pole were Pam Young, Jean Pearson, Lois Jones, Eileen McSaveney, Kay Lindsay and Terry Tickhill in 1969. The introduction of alien plants or animals can bring a criminal penalty, as can the extraction of any indigenous species. [74] The lowest natural air temperature ever recorded on Earth was −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F) at the Russian Vostok Station in Antarctica on 21 July 1983. Astrophysicists at Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station study the celestial dome and cosmic microwave background radiation. Since about 15 Ma, the continent has been mostly covered with ice. However, it is the outflow of the ice from the land to form the ice shelf which causes a rise in global sea level. [66] In the Eocene epoch, about 40 Ma Australia-New Guinea separated from Antarctica, so that latitudinal currents could isolate Antarctica from Australia, and the first ice began to appear. This happened three days before Bransfield sighted the land of the Trinity Peninsula of Antarctica, as opposed to the ice of an ice shelf, and ten months before Palmer did so in November 1820. By signing up, you'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions. [1], Antarctica is colder than the Arctic for three reasons. [178], There is a large area of low ozone concentration or "ozone hole" over Antarctica. More than 170 million years ago, Antarctica was part of the supercontinent Gondwana. The treaty states that all parties involved agree that Antarctica shall forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes. King penguins, chinstrap penguins, and gentoo penguins also breed in the Antarctic. Fortunately for polar enthusiasts, there are no cities on the Antarctic continent –only stations. Most countries have a research center in Antarctica within the area claimed by them. The answer to this question we’ve already talked about, there are seven countries that claim one area each as their own, the exception being Norway which claims two territories: Peter I Island and Queen Maud Land . [180] Models also suggest that the ozone depletion/enhanced polar vortex effect also accounts for the recent increase in sea ice just offshore of the continent. [21] Cook came within about 120 km (75 mi) of the Antarctic coast before retreating in the face of field ice in January 1773.[22]. Military personnel or equipment are permitted only for scientific research or other peaceful purposes. Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent. by Matt Plays Quiz Updated Jan 25, 2017 . Australia currently claims the largest area. Instead the recent increases in glacier outflow are believed to be due to an inflow of warm water from the deep ocean, just off the continental shelf. In 1998, a compromise agreement was reached to place an indefinite ban on mining, to be reviewed in 2048, further limiting economic development and exploitation. There is also evidence of volcanic activity, even after the ice sheet had formed, in Marie Byrd Land and Alexander Island. The IGY prompted an intense period of scientific research in the Antarctic. Antarctica is the southernmost continent on Earth. Why should I know how many countries in antarctica? Antarctica, on average, is the coldest, driest, and windiest continent, and has the highest average elevation of all the continents. As a result, the continental mass of the East Antarctic ice sheet is held at lower temperatures, and the peripheral areas of Antarctica, especially the Antarctic Peninsula, are subject to higher temperatures, which promote accelerated melting. [80], Several governments maintain permanent manned research stations on the continent. No, it does not. The most common system used varies from country to country. Compared with meteorites collected in more temperate regions on Earth, the Antarctic meteorites are well-preserved. [118] In 1988, the Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resources (CRAMRA) was adopted. [95] The snow petrel is one of only three birds that breed exclusively in Antarctica. The mass balance of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet as a whole is thought to be slightly positive (lowering sea level) or near to balance. Recent decades have witnessed several dramatic collapses of large ice shelves around the coast of Antarctica, especially along the Antarctic Peninsula. Today the information lies around, so this phrase would sound like this: Не who knows where to find information, owns the world. [108], The passing of the Antarctic Conservation Act (1978) in the U.S. brought several restrictions to U.S. activity on Antarctica. In 1895, the first confirmed landing was conducted by a team of Norwegians. The latter in its brief sojourn actually made a temporary landing; while the Wilkes expedition, though it did not make a landing, did remain long enough in the region to survey and map some 800 miles of the continent. The number of people conducting and supporting scientific research and other work on the continent and its nearby islands varies from about 1,000 in winter to about 5,000 in the summer, giving it a population density between 70 and 350 inhabitants per million square kilometres (180 and 900 per million square miles) at these times. [181] In 2019, the ozone hole was at its smallest in the previous thirty years, due to the warmer polar stratosphere weakening the polar vortex. The cooling of Antarctica occurred stepwise, as the continental spread changed the oceanic currents from longitudinal equator-to-pole temperature-equalising currents to latitudinal currents that preserved and accentuated latitude temperature differences. The geological study of Antarctica has been greatly hindered by nearly all of the continent being permanently covered with a thick layer of ice. However, belief in the existence of a Terra Australis—a vast continent in the far south of the globe to "balance" the northern lands of Europe, Asia and North Africa—had prevailed since the times of Ptolemy in the 1st century AD. Many astronomical observations are better made from the interior of Antarctica than from most surface locations because of the high elevation, which results in a thin atmosphere; low temperature, which minimises the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere; and absence of light pollution, thus allowing for a view of space clearer than anywhere else on Earth. Other dormant volcanoes may potentially be active. There are currently 70 permanent research stations scattered across the continent of Antarctica, which represent 29 countries from every continent on Earth. [126], Other countries participating as members of the Antarctic Treaty have a territorial interest in Antarctica, but the provisions of the Treaty do not allow them to make their claims while it is in force. Unsurprisingly, many countries do not recognize this. A major concern within this committee is the risk to Antarctica from unintentional introduction of non-native species from outside the region. As a result of continued warming, the polar ice caps melted and much of Gondwana became a desert. [39] One month later, the doomed Scott Expedition reached the pole. In 1985, three British scientists working on data they had gathered at Halley Station on the Brunt Ice Shelf discovered the existence of a hole in this layer. The claims of Britain, Australia, New Zealand, France and Norway are all recognised by each other. The treaty was signed by twelve countries including the Soviet Union (and later Russia), the United Kingdom, Argentina, Chile, Australia, and the United States. Antarctica was not always cold, dry, and covered in ice sheets. Richard E. Byrd led several voyages to the Antarctic by plane in the 1930s and 1940s. While a few of these countries have mutually recognised each other's claims,[111] the validity of these claims is not recognised universally.[1]. Douglas Mawson, who assumed the leadership of the Magnetic Pole party on their perilous return, went on to lead several expeditions until retiring in 1931. In coastal areas such as Shackleton Range and Victoria Land some faulting has occurred. Some countries don’t recognise any … Another well-known volcano is found on Deception Island, which is famous for a giant eruption in 1970. Geologists tend to study plate tectonics, meteorites from outer space, and resources from the breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana. Together, these countries, or ‘signatories’ of the Antarctic Treaty, must ensure the preservation and wellbeing of the natural land, and to cooperate with their fel… Lake Vostok is the biggest lake at a length of 250 kilomet… A sun dog, a frequent atmospheric optical phenomenon, is a bright "spot" beside the true sun. [182], Some scientific studies suggest that ozone depletion may have a dominant role in governing climatic change in Antarctica (and a wider area of the Southern Hemisphere). Offshore, temperatures are also low enough that ice is formed from seawater through most of the year. Today, seven countries have territories on Antarctica: Countries like the United States, Peru, Russia, and South Africa have all reserved their right to claim the original Antarctic Treaty. 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